Vigilância do óbito evitável: comparação entre fetal e neonatal precoce

Isabela de Lucena Heráclio, Mirella Bezerra Rodrigues Vilela, Aline Luzia Sampaio Guimarães, Conceição Maria de Oliveira, Paulo Germano de Frias, Cristine Vieira do Bonfim

Resumo

Comparar características sociodemográficas, assistenciais e epidemiológicas de óbitos fetais e neonatais precoces evitáveis investigados. Estudo transversal, cuja fonte de dados foi a ficha de investigação do óbito fetal, em menor de um ano, preenchida pela vigilância do Recife (PE). Procedeu-se a comparação entre os grupos de óbitos fetais e neonatais precoces evitáveis, utilizando o teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson, com a=5%. Dos 117 óbitos analisados, 94 (80,3%) eram fetais. A avaliação da assistência à saúde evidenciou falhas em 95,6% dos óbitos perinatais, destacando-se a assistência ao pré-natal, com falhas em 75,6% dos fetais e 90% nos neonatais precoces. Os óbitos reduzíveis por adequada atenção à mulher na gestação constituíram o principal grupo de evitabilidade (64,1%). Houve falhas na assistência na quase totalidade dos óbitos. A comparação entre os óbitos perinatais evitáveis permitiu avaliar a qualidade da assistência e pode contribuir com a elaboração de estratégias de redução.

Descritores: Mortalidade perinatal, Saúde Materno-infantil, Estatísticas Vitais, Vigilância em Saúde Pública.

 

Preventable death surveillance: a comparison between fetal and neonatal

Abstract: To compare sociodemographic, health care and epidemiologic characteristics of investigated preventable fetal and premature neonatal deaths. Cross-sectional study, whose data source was the fetal death investigation form, in less than a year, filled out by Recife’s surveillance (PE). Then, a comparison proceeded between fetal and premature neonatal preventable death groups, utilizing the Pearson’s Chi-square test, with a=5%. From 117 analyzed deaths, 94 (80.3%) were fetal. The evaluation of healthcare presented failures in 95.6% of perinatal deaths, emphasizing the assistance to prenatal, with failures of 75.6% of fetal and 90% in premature neonatal deaths. Deaths reducible by adequate assistance for women during pregnancy were the main preventable group (64.1%). There were deficiencies in the assistance in almost all deaths. The comparison among avoidable perinatal deaths allowed the evaluation of care quality and may enable contributions towards the elaboration of reduction strategies.

Descriptors: Perinatal Mortality, Maternal and Child Health, Vital Statistics, Public Health Surveillance.

 

Vigilancia del óbito evitable: comparación entre fetal y neonatal precoz

Resumen: Comparar características sociodemográficas, de auxílio social y epidemiológicas de óbitos fetales y neonatales precoces evitables investigados. Estudio transversal, cuya fuente de datos fue la ficha de investigación del óbito fetal, en menor de un año, rellenada por la vigilancia de Recife (PE). Se procedió a la comparación entre los grupos de óbitos fetales y neonatales precoces evitables, empleando el test Qui-cuadrado de Pearson, con a=5%. De los 117 óbitos analizados, 94 (80,3%) eran fetales. La evaluación de la asistencia a la salud denotó fallos en 95,6% de los óbitos perinatales, destacándose la asistencia prenatal con fallos en el 75,6% de los óbitos perinatales y 90% de los neonatales precoces. Los óbitos reductibles por atención adecuada a la mujer gestante constituyeron el principal grupo de evitabilidad (64,1%). Hubo fallos en la asistencia en la casi totalidad de los óbitos. La comparación entre los óbitos perinatales evitables permitió evaluar la calidad de la asistencia y puede enriquecer la elaboración de estrategias de reducción. 

Descriptores: Mortalidad perinatal, Salud Materno-Infantil, Estadísticas Vitales, Vigilancia en Salud Pública.

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